Almost all religions claim that man is God’s most special creature. In the Qur’an, man is declared the most special creation (ahsan taqwim/QS alTin/95:4). Human privilege is not distinguished by ethnicity, religion, or belief. Whoever feels that Adam’s posterity is to be glorified, as stated in the verse: “And indeed We have glorified the children of Adam” (17:70).
Human is the only creature who has the ability to carry the great trust of Allah: “We have revealed the mandate to the heavens, the earth, and the mountains, so all are reluctant to carry the mandate and they fear that they will betray it, and are taken away by the mandate by humans.” (QS al-Ahdzab/33:72). For his advantages, man is then appointed as caliph on earth:
“I want to make a caliph on the face of the earth.” (QS al-Baqarah/2:30). Besides being caliphs, man is also a servant: “And I did not create the jinn and mankind but that they should worship Me.”. (QS alZariyat/51:56). The most important thing is the only creature that is directly taught the whole of His names: “And He taught Adam the names of all”. (QS alBaqarah/2:31).
Man is the only creature of God who is theomorphic, in which he is joined by two dimensions, namely the dimensions of Lahut (QS al-Hijr/15:29) and nasut (QS al-Naml/27:82). Within him are also two great powers, namely masculine power (quwwah jalaliyah) and feminine power (quwwah jamaliyyah), a combination that no other creature has. This combination gives the possibility as well as the ability of humans to assume the capacity as caliph of the earth (khalaif alardh).
However, according to SH Nasr, this combination also makes humans as creatures of existentialism, which is a creature that can go down and down its dignity in the sight of Allah SWT. Man can be the noblest creature (ahsan taqwim/QS al-Tin/95:4), but man can also be the most despicable creature (asfala safilin/QS al-Tin/95:5, QS alA’raf/7:179).
Other beings, not least angels, cannot sin because they do not have a jalaliyyah quwwah. They only have quwwah jamaliyyah. Angels and other beings can only represent aspects of difference and incomparity (tanzih), but cannot represent aspects of likeness andbandiness (tasybih). On the contrary, man, with the combination of the two powers he possesses, is able to achieve the maqam “synthesis of divinity” (al-jam’yyat alilahiyyah). Man is able to display the characteristics of jalaliyyah in addition to the jamaliyyah qualities of God.
Masculine-feminine composition must always be measured so as not to be biased. Man is able to attain a higher level of ma’rifah, which in sufism is often called “Maqam Adna” (QS al-Najm/53:9).
In addition to the various privileges mentioned above, man is also given a special special privilege, where the universe is subjugated to him, better known by the concept of taskhir in Islamic theology. The whole universe is subjugated to man in his capacity as caliph (khalaif al-ardh), as it is mentioned in the verse: “Do you not see that Allah subdues for you what is on earth and the ark that sails in the sea by His command. And he kept the heavens down to the earth, but his permission? Surely Allah is merciful to mankind.” (QS al-Hajj : 65).
The submission (taskhir) of the universe to man is not without reserve. The universe will be subject as long as man properly executes the capacity of his caliphate. Man continues to lead the universe in accordance with the guidance of the Khaliq as proclaimed in the Scriptures. For example, in carrying out the capacity of his caliphate always imitates Allah SWT as the “Preserver of the universe” (Rabb al-‘alamin / QS alFatihah : 2), man must also be aware that Allah SWT is more prominent as the Mother of God than the Father of God in managing this universe. As caliph, man also must not exceed the limits: “And do not exaggerate. God does not like those who are too much.” (QS al-An’am : 141).
Man must not deviate from the provisions outlined by Allah (SWT) to him, which will ultimately harm the life of mankind, as is found in the verse: “It has appeared that the people on land and at sea are because of the works of human hands, so that Allah may feel to me re-part of their deeds, so that they may return (to the right way).” (QS al-Rum : 41).
The concept of taskhir in Islam has preconditions. When man forgets himself as a servant and caliph who must purify the earth, then they explore the constellations of nature that exceed the threshold of their carrying capacity, and their neighbors blaspheme each other and cause bloodshed, as the angel fears (QS alBaqarah : 30).
When man no longer heeds the provisions of Allah SWT, for example, the rulers no longer side with justice and to the people, ignoring common sense and conscience, business people no longer heed business ethics, scholars and scientists have been in the consideration of objectivity, workers and employees have lost their sense of sincerity, then when it is disaster after disaster as lurking in society. Strictly speaking, when humans as caliphs are trapped in over-masculine qualities, when it will appear disaster as a warning and lesson learning for humans.