Let’s learn Fiqh: Thaharah (Part 1)


 قال المصنف رحمه الله تعالى : المِيَاهُ الَّتِي يَجُوْزُ بِهَا التَّطْهِيْرُ سَبْعُ مِيَاهٍ : مَاءُ السَّمَاءِ، وَمَاءُ الْبَحْرِ، وَمَاءُ النَّهْرِ، وَمَاءُ الْبِئْرِ، وَمَاءُ الْعَيْنِ، وَمَاءُ الثَّلْجِ، وَمَاءُ الْبَرَدِ.


The author of the book said: “There are seven kinds of water that can be used for purification: rain water, sea water, river water, well water, water from springs, ice water and cold water.”




First, sky water. It means rainwater. The basis for the permissibility of rainwater for purification is based on the word of Allah SWT, “He who sends down water from the sky to you, so that you purify with it”. (Surat al-Anfaal: 11).


Second, sea water. Narrated Abu Hurairah ra., he said: “There was a man asked the Messenger of Allah with his words: O Messenger of Allah, we boarded a boat in the ocean, and we brought only a little water. If we make ablution using this water, we will be thirsty. Can we perform ablution using sea water? Then the Messenger of Allah replied: “The sea is clean and its carcass is lawful”, narrated by five narrators. At Tirmidzy stated: This hadith is Hasan. (Halal carcass: meaning that it can be eaten what dies in the ocean, both in the form of fish and the like, without being slaughtered according to syar’i). Based on this hadith, scholars agree that sea water can be used for purification.


Third, river water. This is based on the consensus of the scholars which has been narrated by Imam Ibn Daqiqul ‘iq in his book which prescribes the Taqrib book.


Fourth, well water. In ancient times there was a well located in Medina in the lowlands called the Budho’ah well. Every time it rains a lot of dirt (garbage, used sanitary napkins, etc.) that enters the well. When the Companions saw this, they asked the Messenger of Allah (saw) (at that time water was very scarce). “O Messenger of Allah, do you perform ablution from the well of Budho’ah in which there is a lot of dirt?” Then Rasulullah SAW replied, “Water is something that can be purified and the water will not be unclean”. From this hadith we can conclude that we can use well water for ablution, even though the water has changed somewhat as in the Budho’ah well.


Fifth, source water. This is based on the agreement of the scholars. That the source water can be used for ablution.


The sixth and seventh are, ice water and dew water. These two waters are based on a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah ra, he said: “The Messenger of Allah (SAW) was silent for a while in prayer before reciting (fatihah). I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, what are you reading?” The Prophet Muhammad SAW said: “I read: “O Allah, keep me away from mistakes as You distanced between east and west. O Allah, cleanse me from my mistakes as a white cloth is cleaned of dirt. O Allah, cleanse me from my mistakes with ice water and dew.” (Narrated by Al-Bukhari Muslim). (*)

Written by KH. Chamzawi, M.Hi from Islamic State University of Malang

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